Total spending came out to about $8,175 per person. However, the bar chart displays figures for the United States only. This can be at least partially attributed to the income tax exemption granted to employers for payments made toward health insurance for employees. Even as the framers of the Constitution were enamored of Locke's political philosophy, they and many other early Americans were heavily influenced by French philosopher Baron de Montesquieu's The Spirit of the Laws (1949), in which he urged that the powers of governments should be separated in order to thwart the development of tyrannical states. The Medicaid program, established by the federal government along with Medicare in 1965, is a jointly-funded cooperative venture between the national and state governments that provides healthcare insurance coverage for some poor Americans. , In the United States, there are more than 10,000 FDA-approved medicines available for doctors to prescribe or individuals to purchase over-the-counter. 1999. Between 2000 and 2014, insurance premiums for employer-sponsored plans, including state and local government plans, increased 144 percent for single coverage and 161 percent for family coverage. Since 1996, health IT privacy and security has been governed by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), which required and set national standards for the confidentiality of patient information "when it is transferred, received, handled, or shared. For instance, in the context of growing concerns about protecting patient autonomy, the federal Patient Self-Determination Act was enacted in 1990. ", All-payer claims databases are one form of health IT that a growing number of states are implementing to track healthcare costs. Lack of insurance, of course, limits access to care, and has been documented by researchers such as David W. Baker, Joseph J. Sudano, Jeffrey M. Albert, et al., (2001) as increasing the risk of poor health. , Note: Due to such variations as demographics, plan richness and provider rates, "higher spending is not necessarily an indication of waste, and lower spending is not necessarily a sign of efficiency. The uninsured rate increased by 2.3 percentage points. Total Medicaid spending for dual eligibles in the United States amounted to $146.9 billion. For added context, these figures are compared below with those in Massachusetts and Utah, the states with the highest and lowest levels of total healthcare spending per capita, respectively. Medicaid covered about 16 percent of residents, while about 15 percent were enrolled in Medicare. These requirements sometimes include veterinarians, but often exclude hospitals that dispense drugs to inpatients. Therefore, generally speaking, government intervention of a sweeping nature is difficult in the American political system. As Bruce Vladeck observed in 1999, Medicare financing has largely built and sustained the modern medical industrial complex. Perhaps the two broadest and most important ongoing issues from a bioethical perspective are: (1) how government will deal with issues of increased longevity; and (2) whether government will remedy the unequal distribution of access to care by securing insurance for the uninsured. Prescription drugs generated a total of $259 billion in sales at retail pharmacies nationwide in 2014. At the most generous end of the range of low-income thresholds used by states in 1999 was Tennessee's 400 percent of the federally-established poverty line; at the other extreme were eight other states with a threshold of 133 percent (Ku, Ullman, and Almeida). Per inmate spending rose by 13 percent as well during that same time period. Montesquieu, Charles-Louis de Secondat de. backImage: "flat", Medicaid may also be used to help pay for Medicare premiums. In order to ensure that the population of a given nation remains a…, Long-Term Care Insurance , Several states are experimenting with various cost-containment methods. Miller, Richard A. This represented a 1 percent decline from 2011 expenditures. Despite a political culture that emphasizes individualism and the free market, about three-fifths of all U.S. spending on personal healthcare is financed, directly or indirectly, by governments (Woolhandler and Himmelstein).