In this example, the longer quote has been put in a separate, indented paragraph. This can be helpful for making a point in a short amount of space. UQ Harvard referencing style What is a direct quotation? Journal of Genocidal Research, (6)1, pp. 'How many perpetrators were there in the Rwandan genocide? The full reference of in-text citations appears in the reference list. See Direct quotes for more information. Academic skills for international students, Creating Multimedia Presentations with Adobe Spark, Essential search skills for your dissertation, Getting started with your literature review, Browse the regular web anonymously using Tor, Planning and using revision time effectively, Revision strategies and memory techniques. They are much shorter than full references. Every citation should have a relevant reference later in the text. It can seem hard to judge which information is common knowledge. 113-25. Title. A citation is a 'link' in the text, whether a number or author and date, that connects the data/information/ideas being discussed with the more detailed information in the reference list or bibliography. If the quotation is fewer than 30 words, incorporate it into a paragraph and enclose the quotation in single quotation marks. The structure for a Harvard Reference List citation for books with one author includes the following: 1. Everest is the highest mountain in the world. Longer quotes should be put in a separate paragraph, and indented. If the edition isn’t listed, it is safe to assume that it is the first addition, and does not need to be included in the citation. See, If you are using your own words to describe someone else's ideas, you still need to give a reference to their work. Revised on 15 May 2020. Using an example author James Mitchell, this takes the form: Mitchell (2017, p. 189) states.. Or (Mitchell, 2017, p. 189) David Miller’s simple definition of social justice (cited in Lister 2007) …. For more details, see What information should I include in a reference? Direct quotes should be in quotation marks ("") if they are relatively short. In this case, only include the source you did consult in your references because you did not read the original document. A direct quotation reproduces word-for-word material directly quoted from another author’s work, or from your own previously-published work. If you are unsure, it may be best to provide a reference. See Direct quotes for more information. In Harvard style, citations appear in brackets in the text. Every citation should have a relevant reference later in the text. You must also provide a reference to show where the words came from, to help the reader find the source. However, citations and references have still been provided. In the Harvard 'author/date' style an in-text reference consists of the surname of the author/authors or name of the authoring body and year of publication. Whenever you use a direct quote, you must indent the quote or put it in quotation marks. Quoting is where you copy an author's text word for word, place double quotation marks around the words and add a citation at the end of the quote. What information should I include in a reference? In-text citation: In the numeric system, citations are just numbers like this (1) or this, A reference should include full details of the source. See, The citation points the reader in the right direction, but it does not include much information. In-text reference. In the list of references, record the publication you actually sourced. For more details, see. (Fletcher 2007, pp.25-48) (Straus 2004, pp.85-98). Because the text has been completely re-written, there is no need to indent the text or put it in quotation marks. The reference list or bibliography provides the full details of the source cited. Look at the example below, which is a paraphrased version of the direct quotes we looked at before. An in-text citation should appear wherever you quote or paraphrase a source in your writing, pointing your reader to the full reference. Use the words 'cited in' in the in-text citation to indicate you have not read the original research. These actions show that you are not claiming the work is your own. 85-98. if your assignment is in 12, use 10 for the quotation In both cases, it is clear where the student has quoted someone else's work. In this case, only include the source you did consult in your references because you did not read the original document. All sources of information such as quotes or borrowed ideas must be acknowledged in your work. Journal of Genocide Research, 9:1, pp 25-48. When you are paraphrasing someone else's idea, you still need to make it clear where you found the idea, and include an accurate reference. In the list of references, record the publication you actually sourced. Using too many quotes can suggest you don't fully understand the text you are referring to. Straus agrees with this, saying that scholars have presented the Rwandan genocide as “a state-organised, planned extermination campaign” (Straus 2004, p.86). You may wish to write another person's idea in your own words. Journal of Genocidal Research, 6:1, pp 85-98. What is the difference between a reference and a citation? An in-text citation consists of the last name of the author, the year of publication, and a page number if relevant. You must also provide a reference to show where the words came from, to help the reader find the source. These actions show that you are not claiming the work is your own. In most academic writing, you should generally paraphrase from sources, rather than quote directly. Sometimes an author writes about research that someone else has done, but you are unable to track down the original research document. An estimate'. A direct quote is where you have used the exact words (or graphs, or other information) from someone else's work. Direct quotes can be very useful for supporting an argument or establishing a point of view. The shorter quote has been put in inverted commas. Last name, First initial. You must also provide a reference to show where the words came from, to help the reader find the source. Straus, S. (2004). (Only include the edition if it is not the first edition) City published: Publisher, Page(s). If you are using someone else's words, the words must be indented or in quotation marks. They should be treated as direct quotes in that the author(s) should be acknowledged and page numbers shown; both in your text where the diagram is discussed or introduced, and in the caption you write for it. In this example from a student's essay, look at how the two quotes are presented differently: Fletcher points out that scholars have interpreted the Rwandan genocide as being organised by the state: The most common explanation for the Rwandan genocide interprets the violence as a state project, whereby elites were able to manipulate and bully the population into carrying out their programme of mass slaughter (Fletcher 2007, p.28). In the numeric system, citations are just numbers like this (1) or this 1. 'Turning interahamwe: individual and community choices in the Rwandan genocide'. Here is an example of a reference using the Harvard referencing system: Fletcher, L. (2007) 'Turning interahamwe: individual and community choices in the Rwandan genocide', Journal of Genocide Research, 9:1, pp25-48. This shows the student is not claiming to have come up with the idea themselves. It enables the reader to further investigate ideas or validate the writer's comments. If you are using your own words to describe someone else's ideas, you still need to give a reference to their work. You could try checking in an encyclopaedia in the library (not Wikipedia); information which is common knowledge will usually not be referenced in the library's encyclopaedia. (Year published). If you are using someone else's words, the words must be indented or in quotation marks. It also shows that you have understood the idea fully and can make use of it as part of your argument.