Figure 12: Portion of the SBS indicating the use of levels. The Georgian and Victorian styles of building are exemplified in the older railway stations and hotels of Great Britain, but new construction has shown a decided tendency to strike a modern note. Many of the humbler, yet no less essential, railway structures are the subject of much thought and careful planning by the architect. Each interface is designated as one of four types:-. [Read the previous article in part 26]     [Read the next article in part 26]. Level 3 provides the lowest level of the SBS such as individual systems and structures. These are known as emergent behaviours and may represent properties that are possibly useful,  or as more often feels to be the case, unwanted. These attributes are tracked to provide a picture of interfacing across the project and to highlight areas where the interface definition and integration may be weak. The CARE tool facilitates navigation from these lowest levels items to assurance summary forms which are stored and maintained in the CARE environment. Factory acceptance of each sub‐system before delivery to site, or off‐site test facility. This is then broken down into its parts, for more detail and clarity on the interfaces between sub-systems. How these principles are applied to the Crossrail development project are illustrated by descriptions of several system architecture models aligned with the lifecycle model used to structure and govern the project. In former days a station roof would serve a double purpose - to protect the premises from the weather and also to collect water for use in the locomotives. Representations articulate different views for the perspective of specific system concerns. This progresses from concept designs, through detailed designs, to procurement. Hierarchy: Creating levelled models with a level 0 representing the top most layer. This station is on the extension from Finsbury Park to Arnos Grove which was opened in September 1932. At the programme level within Crossrail it can be defined as the task of detailing and apportioning the Sponsors’ Requirements into components or sub‐systems that can be designed and built, and then bringing together these components into a system and ensuring that they deliver a safe, operable and working railway that meets the sponsors’ requirements. Post Completion: the application of the developed system architecture models can extend well beyond the development phases. THE INTERIOR OF LIVERPOOL STREET STATION with its iron columns and girder work is typical of many London termini. The system architecture drawings provide a means for visualising and controlling the configuration of the railway. Walls are curved inwards, where bookstalls or shops line the concourses, to avoid obstruction. It exists as a CAD drawing and exported as an Adobe file for wider distribution. A natural development of the main terminus was the inclusion of the company’s administration offices in the station buildings. Escalators lead to sub-surface stations. © Railway Wonders of the World 2012-20  |  Contents  |  Site Map  |  Contact Us at info@railwaywondersoftheworld.com, Designs That Combine Elegance and Utility. This type of diagrams is used in Component-Based Development (CBD) to describe systems with Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA). Operations and maintenance bodies can utilise the models for training purposes or as input for developing business and organisational strategies. The SBS constitutes a hierarchical structured diagram to depict the assets and systems that make up the Crossrail railway. Starting on the left-hand side of the V, partitioning of the top level requirements and definition activities determine the system architecture, creating the details of the design. It is not on stations and bridges alone, however, that the skill of the architect is expended. At the top level L0 it presents the railway assets in relation to their geographical locations. A station with a distinctly medieval aspect is that at Ghent St. Pierre on the Belgian State Railways, where the motor cars in the forecourt provide a striking contrast to the castle-like walls of the booking-hall and administration offices. The purpose of this document is to describe a suite of drawings and tools used during the development of the Crossrail project which could be usefully applied to other projects. The System Architecture work products described range from relatively simple diagrams to multi-layered, metadata loaded models and diagrammatic objects with built-in relationships to represent the interfaces. A modern railway station at Versailles. It includes generic representations of systems in the surface section, the Route Control Centre, Back-up Control Facility, depots, sidings, stations, power supplies, portals, shafts, cross-passages, and the rolling stock. With great increases of speed it is probable that station roofs will have to be re-designed to obviate their being damaged by the force of these artificial cyclones. However, the role can be elevated within the process to become far more central (such as becoming the main specification of the system). Amongst these are included; Process:           the individual tasks performed in a logical sequence to develop the system and arrive at the stated goal. In addition to comfort, we have the aesthetic aspect of railway work. This diagram is developed in Visio, and the facility added to hyperlink each contract block to a sheet within the electronic Crossrail document depository providing high level metadata of that contract (eg description, interface works, work sites, etc) when viewed on-screen. Interfaces are assigned to an ‘owning’ system. Models also exist from the designer perspective but are not discussed here. Integration is then required to assimilate the detailed products and implementations back into a single coordinated and functioning system. An enlarged section is shown in figure 6. Its application to railway work has also changed with the times; the old Victorian buildings offer a striking contrast to the imposing structures, in steel and concrete, of the post-war period. Adopting and applying an international standard such as ISO/ICE/IEEE 42010 [1] can provide a framework for such a common approach. Remind me later The focus of a L3 diagram is the systems and the sub-systems or elements and their interface requirements especially during T&C. It was through these columns that the rain-water for the locomotives drained into underground tanks. A system architecture diagram in turn is often used as a work product to communicate these views. Much like other systems engineering tools and methods, applying these on the Crossrail project requires adaptation to suit the railway system domain. It does not adhere to a formal architectural description language. The station is served by both steam and electric trains, and is on the system of the French State Railways. INTRODUCTION: 1.1. Ka-Ho Li, George Georgiou, ICE Publishing Publication An interesting problem arises in connexion with this “suction” effect in the wake of a fast train - nobody can have failed to notice the swirl of paper and dust caused by the flash of an express through a station. This station is on the extension from Finsbury Park to Arnos Grove which was opened in September 1932. A feature of these stations is the provision of a relief shaft, to mitigate the effect of the draught caused by trains entering or leaving the platforms.